ÇOK KÜLTÜRLÜ İŞ ORTAMINDA KÜLTÜREL ZEKANIN ROLÜ

Yazarlar

  • Murat TOPALOĞLU Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi
  • Kubilay ÖZYER Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi

Anahtar Kelimeler:

Zekâ Teorileri, Örgütsel Davranış, Kültürel Zeka, Çok Kültürlü İş Ortamı

Özet

Bu araştırmanın amacı çok kültürlü bir iş ortamında kültürel zekânın rolünü ortaya koymaktır. Araştırma kapsamında öncelikle zekâ ile ilgili öncü teoriler, kültürel zekânın tanımları ve kültürel zekâyı etkileyen faktörler hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Daha sonra mevcut literatürde var olan kültürel zekâ ile ilgili çalışmalar, sistematik literatür taraması yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın sonunda ise kültürel zekânın çok kültürlü bir iş ortamında liderliği, performansı, çatışmaların çözümünü, kültürel uyumu, işbirliğini, işe bağlılığı ve iş tatminini farklı yönlerden etkileyen önemli bir faktör olduğu ortaya koyulmuştur. Araştırmacılar için kültürel zekâ ile ilgili yeni araştırma konuları önerileri sunulmuştur.

Referanslar

Afsar, B., Shahjehan, A., Shah, S. I., & Wajid, A. (2019) The mediating role of transformational leadership in the relationship between cultural intelligence and employee voice behavior: A case of hotel employees. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 69, 66-75.

Ahmadi, S. A. A., Safarzadeh, H., Hozoori, M. J., & Dehnavi, F. (2014). The Role of Cultural Intelligence of Managers on employees’ conflict resolution ability. Social Cognition, 2(1), 101-116.

Ahn, M. J. & Ettner, L. (2013). Cultural intelligence (CQ) in MBA curricula. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 7(1), 4-16.

Al Mazrouei, H., Bodolica, V., & Zacca, R. (2023). Learning goal orientation and turnover intention: an interplay between cultural intelligence and organisational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, (baskı aşamasında).

Aldhaheri, A. (2017). Cultural Intelligence and Leadership Style in the Education Sector. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(6), 718-735.

Aliane, N. & Zakariya, A. (2023). Expatriates Job Satisfaction and Performance: Examining the Effects of Emotional & Cultural Intelligence, Cross-cultural Adoptability & Competency and Interpersonal Social Network. Croatian International Relations Review, 29(92), 123-143.

Anastasi, A. (1992). What counselors should know about the use and interpretation of psychological tests. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(5), 610-615.

Andresen, M. & Bergdolt, F. (2017). A Systematic Literature Review on the Definitions of Global Mindset and Cultural Intelligence - Merging Two Different Research Streams. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(1), 170-195.

Ang, S. & Inkpen, A. C. (2008). Cultural Intelligence and Offshore Outsourcing Success: A Framework of Firm-level Intercultural Capability. Decision Sciences, 39(3), 337-358.

Ang, S. ve Van Dyne, L. (2008). Conceptualization of cultural intelligence: Definition, distinctiveness, and nomological network. İçinde S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.). Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications (3-15). M.E. Sharpe.

Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templer, K., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 3(3), 335-371.

Anvari, R., Irum, S., Ashfaq, M., & Atiyaye, D. M. (2014). The Impact of Leader's Cultural Intelligence on Organizational Commitment. Asian Social Science, 10(17), 45-51.

Attar, M., Saber Jami, M., & Kalfaoğlu, S. (2019). Effect of Cultural Intelligence on Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles: A Research in Charity Organizations in Erbil, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 41, 148-160.

Ayoko, O. B., Zhang, Y., & Nicoli, J. (2022) Conflict and socio-cultural adaptation: the mediating and moderating role of conflict communication behaviors and cultural intelligence. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 33(17), 3451-3491.

Azarvand, J., Feizi, M., & Alipour, H. (2013). Surveying the Relationship Between Cultural Intelligence and Organizational Commitment at Islamic Azad University. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(3), 78-84.

Azevedo, A. & Shane, M. J. (2019). A new traing program in developing cultural intelligence can also improve innovative work behavior and resilience: A longitudinal pilot study of graduate students and professional employees. The International Journal of Management Education, 17(3), 1-20.

Balogh, A., Gaal, Z., & Szabó, L. (2022). Relationship between Organizational Culture and Cultural Intelligence. Management & Marketing, 6(1), 95-110.

Balu, M-E. V. & Furtuna, F. (2006). The Centroid Method - Statistical Method of Territorial Profile Factor Analysis. SSRN, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.988287

Barakat, L., Lorenz, M., Ramsey, J., & Cretoiu, S. (2015). Global managers: An analysis of the impact of cultural intelligence on job satisfaction and performance. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 10(4), 781-800.

Bhatt, P. (2020). India–Kuwait: Inter-Cultural Sensitivity, Cultural Intelligence and Conflict-handling Styles in Cross-cultural Interactions. Conflict Studies Quarterly, 33, 20-41.

Bhetuwal, K. P. (2022). Critical Review of the Learning Theories of John Dewey and Jean Piaget. Global Scientific Journals, 10(10), 822-831.

Binet, A. & Simon T. (1904). Méthodes nouvelles pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L'année psychologique, 11, 191-244.

Bogilović, S., Černe, M., & Škerlavaj, M. (2017). Hiding behind a mask? Cultural intelligence, knowledge hiding, and individual and team creativity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(5), 710-723.

Box, J. B., Converso, J. A., & Osayamwen, E. (2015). Transforming Leaders through Cultural Intelligence. Global Journal of Business Research, 9(2), 23-40.

Brislin, R., Worthley, R., & Macnab, B. (2006). Cultural Intelligence: Understanding Behaviors That Serve People’s Goals. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 40-55.

Budak, Y., Gençtanırım Kurt, D, & Kula, S. S. (2018). Bilişsel Gelişimde Farklı Bir Görüş Geliştiren Henry Wallon ve Jean Piaget’in Görüşlerinin Karşılaştırılmalı Olarak İncelenmesi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 48, 415-436.

Bücker, J., Furrer, O., Poutsma, E., & Buyens, D. (2014). The impact of cultural intelligence on communication effectiveness, job satisfaction and anxiety for Chinese host country managers working for foreign multinationals. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(4), 2068-2087.

Bücker, J. J. L. E. & Korzilius, H. (2015) Developing cultural intelligence: assessing the effect of the Ecotonos cultural simulation game for international business students. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(15), 1995-2014.

Caputo, A., Ayoko, O., Amoo, N., & Menke, C. (2019). The relationship between cultural values, cultural intelligence and negotiation styles. Journal of Business Research, 99, 23-36.

Cattell, R. B. (1968). Spearman. İçinde C. E. D. E. Sills (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (108-111). Macmillan.

Cavazotte, F., Mello, S.F., & Oliveira, L.B. (2021). Expatriate's engagement and burnout: the role of purpose-oriented leadership and cultural intelligence. Journal of Global Mobility, 9(1), 90-106.

Charoensukmongkol, P. (2021). How Chinese Expatriates’ Cultural Intelligence Promotes Supervisor-Subordinate Guanxi with Thai Employees: The Mediating Effect of Expatriates’ Benevolence. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 21(1), 9-30.

Charoensukmongkol, P. & Phungsoonthorn, T. (2022). The effect of cultural intelligence of top management on pro-diversity work climate and work attitudes of Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 41(5), 760-777.

Chen, A. (2015). CQ at Work and the Impact of Intercultural Training: An Empirical Test among Foreign Laborers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 101-112.

Chen, M‐L. & Lin, C‐P. (2013). Assessing the Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Team Knowledge Sharing From a Socio-Cognitive Perspective. Human Resource Management, 52(5), 675-695.

Cheung, C., Tung, V., & Goopio, J. (2022). Maximizing Study Abroad Learning Outcomes through Cultural Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence Development. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 30, 1-12.

Chua, R.Y., Morris, M.W., & Mor, S. (2012). Collaborating across cultures: cultural metacognition and affect-based trust in creative collaboration. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 118(2), 116-131.

Clark, J. M. & Polesello, D. (2017). Emotional and Cultural Intelligence in Diverse Workplaces: Getting Out of the Box. Industrial and Commercial Training, 49(7/8), 337-349.

Collins, N., Chou, Y. M., Warner, M., & Rowley, C. (2017). Human factors in East Asian virtual teamwork: A comparative study of Indonesia, Taiwan and Vietnam. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(10), 1475-1498.

Colom, R., Karama, S., Jung, R. E., & Haier, R. J. (2010) Human intelligence and brain networks. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 12(4), 489-501.

Creque, C. A. & Gooden, D. J. (2011). Cultural Intelligence and Global Business Competencies: A Framework for Organizational Effectiveness in the Global Marketplace. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 15(4), 141-146.

Crowne, K. A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence? Business Horizons, 51(5), 391-399.

Davaei, M., Gunkel, M., Veglio, V., & Taras, V. (2022). The influence of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on conflict occurrence and performance in Global Virtual Teams. Journal of International Management, 28(4), 100969.

Davidaviciene, V. & Al Majzoub, K. (2022). The Effect of Cultural Intelligence, Conflict, and Transformational Leadership on Decision-Making Processes in Virtual Teams. Social Sciences, 11(64), 1-16.

Deary, I. J., Lawn, M., & Bartholomew, D. J. (2008). A conversation between Charles Spearman, Godfrey Thomson, and Edward L. Thorndike: The International Examinations Inquiry Meetings 1931-1938. History of Psychology, 11(2), 122-142.

Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(2), 181-197.

Depaula, P. D., Azzollini, S. C., Cosentino, A. C., & Castillo, S.E. (2016). Personality, Character Strengths and Cultural Intelligence: “Extraversion” or “Openness” as Further Factors Associated to the Cultural Skills. Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana, 34(2), 415-436.

Dolatshah, A. & Husseini, M. G. (2015). The Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Organizational Commitment and Burnout among Employees of the Arman Financial Institution. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 4(1), 1298-1306.

Earley, P. C. & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions across Cultures. Stanford University Press.

Earley, P. C. & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, Ekim, 139-146.

Earley, P. C. & Peterson, R. S. (2004). The Elusive Cultural Chameleon: Cultural Intelligence as a New Approach to Intercultural Training for the Global Manager. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(1), 100-115.

Earley, P. C. (2002). Redefining Interactions across Cultures and Organizations: Moving Forward with Cultural Intelligence. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 271-299.

Fancher, R. E. (1998). Alfred Binet, General Psychologist. İçinde G. A. Kimble & M. Wertheimer (Eds.). Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology (67-85). Psychology Press.

Fu, L. & Charoensukmongkol, P. (2023). Effect of cultural intelligence on burnout of Chinese expatriates in Thailand: The mediating role of host country national coworker support. Current Psychology, 42, 4041-4052.

Gardner, H. & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple Intelligences Go to School: Educational Implications of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-10.

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. Basic Books.

Gokalp, S. (2022). The Relationship between School Principals' Cultural Intelligence Level and Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Intention to Leave the Job. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(1), 493-509.

Goleman, D. (1998). The emotional intelligence of leaders. Leader to Leader, 10, 20-26.

Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78, 78-90.

Gonçalves, G., Reis, M., Sousa, C., Santos, J., & Orgambídez-Ramos, A. (2015). The effect of multicultural experience in conflicts management styles: Mediation of cultural intelligence and self-monitoring. Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, 3(1), 4-21.

Gooden, D. J., Creque, C. A., & Chin-Loy, C. (2017). The Impact of Metacognitive, Cognitive and Motivational Cultural Intelligence on Behavioral Cultural Intelligence. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 16(3), 223-230.

Gottfredson, L. S. (1997). Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories, history, and bibliography. Intelligence, 24(1), 13-23.

Göksoy, S. (2017). The relationship between principals’ cultural intelligence levels and their cultural leadership behaviors. Educational Research and Reviews, 12(20), 988-995.

Gregory, R., Prifling, M., & Beck, R. (2009). The role of cultural intelligence for the emergence of negotiated culture in IT offshore outsourcing projects. Information Technology & People, 22(3), 223-241.

Groves, K. S. & Feyerherm, A. E. (2011). Leader Cultural Intelligence in Context: Testing the Moderating Effects of Team Cultural Diversity on Leader and Team Performance. Group and Organization Management, 36(5), 535-566.

Gu, Y., Yu, H., Wang, Y., & Zhou, S. (2022). The moderating effect of cultural intelligence between nurses' relationship conflict and teamwork. Journal of Nursing Management, 30(7), 3313-3321.

Guðmundsdóttir, S. (2015). Nordic expatriates in the US: The relationship between cultural intelligence and adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 175-186.

Harrison, J. & Brower, H. (2011). The Impact of Cultural Intelligence and Psychological Hardiness on Homesickness among Study Abroad Students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(1), 41-62.

He, G., Ran, A., & Zhang, F. (2019). Cultural Intelligence and Work - Family Conflict: A Moderated Mediation Model Based on Conservation of Resources Theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 1-22.

Henderson, L. S., Stackman, R. W., & Lindekilde, R. (2018). Why cultural intelligence matters on global project teams. International Journal of Project Management. 36(7), 954-967.

Horst, P. (1955). L. L. Thurstone and the Science of Human Behavior. Science, 122, 1259-1260.

Hu, N., Wu, J., & Gu, J. (2019). Cultural intelligence and employees’ creative performance: The moderating role of team conflict in interorganizational teams. Journal of Management & Organization, 25(1), 96-116.

Huang, C., He, C., & Zhai, X. (2020). The Approach of Hierarchical Linear Model to Exploring Individual and Team Creativity: A Perspective of Cultural Intelligence and Team Trust. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 1-10.

Huff, K. C. (2013). Language, cultural intelligence and expatriate success. Management Research Review, 36(6), 596-612.

Huff, K. C., Song, P., & Gresch, E. B. (2014). Cultural intelligence, personality, and cross-cultural adjustment: A study of expatriates in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38(1), 151-157.

Imai, L. & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The Impact of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112(2), 83-98.

Iskhakova, M. & Ott, D.L. (2020). Working in culturally diverse teams: Team-level cultural intelligence (CQ) development and team performance. Journal of International Education in Business, 13(1), 37-54.

İnci, G. (2021). Galton’dan Günümüze Zekâ ve Zekâ Kuramları. ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 11(3), 1053-1068.

Jyoti, J. & Kour, S. (2015). Assessing the cultural intelligence and task performance equation: Mediating role of cultural adjustment. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 22(2), 236-258.

Keung, E. & Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. (2013). The relationship between transformational leadership and cultural intelligence: A study of international school leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(6), 836-854.

Khani, A., Etebarian, A., & Abzari, M. (2011). The relationship between cultural intelligence and group effectiveness in Mobarakeh steel company. African Journal of Business Management, 5(17), 7507-7510.

Kim, Y. J. & Dyne, L. V. (2012). Cultural intelligence and international leadership potential: The importance of contact for members of the majority. Applied Psychology, 61(2), 272-294.

Kumar, N., Rose, R. C., & Sri Ramalu, S. (2008). The effects of personality and cultural intelligence on International Assignment Effectiveness: A Review. Journal of Social Sciences, 4(4), 320-328.

Ladan, F., Atefe, Z. Z., A., Mahna, G., & Hakime, H. (2017). Role of Cultural Intelligence and Job Satisfaction in Predicting Organizational Commitment of Nurses: A Case Study. Journal of Health Based Research, 3(1), 87-97.

Lam, R., Cheung, C., & Lugosi, P. (2022). The impacts of cultural intelligence and emotional labor on the job satisfaction of luxury hotel employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 100, 103084.

Lester, G. V., Clapp-Smith, R., & Palmer, N. (2009). The Role of Authentic Leadership and Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Contexts: An Objectivist Perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(2), 102-117.

Li, M., Mobley, W. H., & Kelly, A. (2013). When Do Global Leaders Learn Best to Develop Cultural Intelligence? An Investigation of the Moderating Role of Experiential Learning Style. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(1), 32-50.

Li, M., Mobley, W. H., & Kelly, A. (2016). Linking personality to cultural intelligence: An interactive effect of openness and agreeableness. Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 105-110.

Li, Y., Li, H., Madche, A., & Rau, P. L. P. (2012). Are you a trustworthy partner in a cross-cultural virtual environment? Behavioral cultural intelligence and receptivity-based trust in virtual collaboration. ICIC '12: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Intercultural Collaboration, 87-96.

Li, Y., Rau, P.-L. P., Li, H., & Maedche, A. (2017). Effects of a Dyad's Cultural Intelligence on Global Virtual Collaboration. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 60(1), 56-75.

Licki, M. M. P. & Van Der Walt, F. (2021). The influence of perceived cultural intelligence of school principals on teachers' job satisfaction and trust. Management Dynamics, 30(2).

Lie, D., Suyasa, P. T. Y. S., & Wijaya, E., (2016). The mediating role of cultural intelligence in the relationship between the openness to experience personality trait and job satisfaction among expatriates. Makara Hubs-Asia, 20(1), 46-56.

Lin, Y., Chen, A. S., & Song, Y. (2012). Does your intelligence help to survive in a foreign jungle? The effects of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on cross-cultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 541-552.

Lindes, P. (2020). Intelligence and Agency. Journal of Artificial General Intelligence, 11(1), 1-3.

Lisak, A. & Erez, M. (2015). Leadership Emergence in Multicultural Teams: The Power of Global Characteristics. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 3-14.

MacNab, B. R. & Worthley, R. (2012). Individual characteristics as predictors of cultural intelligence development: The relevance of self-efficacy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(1), 62-71.

Mahembe, B. & Engelbrecht, A. S. (2014). A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(1), 1-8.

Mallon, E. J. (1976). Cognitive Development and Processes: Review of the Philosophy of Jean Piaget. The American Biology Teacher, 38(1), 28-47.

Masaroğulları, G. & Koçakgöl, M. (2011). Psikoloji Sözlüğü. Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Models of Emotional Intelligence. İçinde R. J. Sternberg (Eds.). Handbook of Intelligence (396-420). Cambridge University Press.

Michell, J. (2012). Alfred Binet and the concept of heterogeneous orders. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-8.

Min, H. (Kelly), Kim, H. J., & Agrusa, J. (2023). Serving Diverse Customers: The Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Employee Burnout, Engagement, and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 47(3), 503-527.

Mor, S., Morris, M. & Joh, J. (2013). Identifying and Training Adaptive Cross-Cultural Management Skills: The Crucial Role of Cultural Metacognition. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(3), 453-475.

Mukherjia, S., Jainb, N., & Sharmab, R. R. (2016). Relevance of Cultural Intelligence and Communication Effectiveness for Global Leadership Preparedness: Study of Indian Managers. Journal of International Business Research and Marketing, 1(3), 7-19.

Musarra, G., Kadile, V., Zaefarian, G., Oghazi, P., & Najafi-Tavani, Z. (2022). Emotions, culture intelligence, and mutual trust in technology business relationships, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 181, 121770.

Nakashima, H. (1999). AI as complex information processing. Minds and machines, 9, 57-80.

Nam, K-A. & Park, S. (2019). Factors Influencing Job Performance: Organizational Learning Culture, Cultural Intelligence, and Transformational Leadership. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 32(2), 137-158.

Ng, K.Y., Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S., (2012). Cultural Intelligence: A Review, Reflections, and Recommendations for Future Research. İçinde A. M. Ryan, F. T. L. Leong & F. L. Oswald (Eds.). Conducting Multinational Research: Applying Organizational Psychology in the Workplace (29-58). American Psychological Association.

Nicolas, S., Coubart, A., & Lubart, T. (2014). The program of individual psychology (1895-1896) by Alfred Binet and Victor Henri. L’année psychologique/Topics in Cognitive Psychology, 114, 5-60.

Okati, E. (2013). Relationship between cultural intelligence and organizational commitment. Contemporary Educational Researches Journal, 3(2), 55-63.

Osman-Gani, A. M. & Hassan, Z. (2018). Impacts of Spiritual and Cultural Intelligence on Leadership Effectiveness: A Conceptual Analysis. Journal of Islamic Management Studies, 1(2), 12-23.

Ozer, S. & Schwartz, S. J. (2021). The culturally intelligent way of acculturating: Examining cultural intelligence and acculturation orientations among foreign workers in the Danish context of reception. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 62(5), 725-734.

Paiuc, D. (2021). Cultural Intelligence as a Core Competence of Inclusive Leadership. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 9(3), 363-378.

Piaget, J. (2005). The Psychology of Intelligence. Routledge.

Poort, I., Jansen, E., & Hofman, A. (2023). Cultural Intelligence and Openness to Experiences Pave the Way for Cognitive Engagement in Intercultural Group Work. Journal of Studies in International Education, 27(2), 277-297.

Presbitero, A. (2016). Cultural intelligence (CQ) in virtual, cross-cultural interactions: Generalizability of measure and links to personality dimensions and task performance. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 50, 29-38.

Presbitero, A. (2020). Foreign language skill, anxiety, cultural intelligence and individual task performance in global virtual teams: A cognitive perspective, Journal of International Management, 26, 1-13.

Presbitero, A. & Teng-Calleja, M. (2019). Ethical leadership, team leader’s cultural intelligence and ethical behavior of team members: Implications for managing human resources in global teams. Personnel Review, 48(5), 1381-1392.

Puyod, J. V. & Charoensukmongkol, P. (2019). The contribution of cultural intelligence to the interaction involvement and performance of call center agents in cross-cultural communication: The moderating role of work experience. Management Research Review, 42(12), 1400-1422.

Ramirez, A. R. (2010). Impact of cultural intelligence level on conflict resolution ability: A conceptual model and research proposal. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 3(1), 42-56.

Ramsey, J. R. & Lorenz, M. P. (2016). Exploring the impact of cross-cultural management education on cultural intelligence, student satisfaction, and commitment. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(1), 79-99.

Ramsey, J. R., Rutti, R. M., Lorenz, M. P., Barakat, L. L., & Sant’anna, A. S. (2017). Developing Global Transformational Leaders. Journal of World Business, 52(4), 461-473.

Ratasuk, A. (2022). The role of cultural intelligence in the trust and turnover of frontline hotel employees in Thailand. Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies, 22(2), 348-358.

Reichard, R. J., Dollwet, M., & Louw-Potgieter, J. (2014). Development of Cross-Cultural Psychological Capital and Its Relationship with Cultural Intelligence and Ethnocentrism. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(2), 150-164.

Richter, N., Martin, J., Hansen, S., Taras, V., & Alon, I. (2021). Motivational Configurations of Cultural Intelligence, Social Integration, and Performance in Global Virtual Teams. Journal of Business Research, 129, 351-367.

Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross‐border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 825-840.

Rosenauer, D., Homan, A., Horstmeier, C., & Voelpel, S. (2016). Managing Nationality Diversity: The Interactive Effect of Leaders’ Cultural Intelligence and Task Interdependence. British Journal of Management, 27(3), 628-645.

Rüth, R. & Netzer, T. (2020). The key elements of cultural intelligence as a driver for digital leadership success. Leadership, Education, Personality: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 3-8.

Sanghvi, P. (2020). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: a review. Indian Journal of Mental Health, 7(2), 90-96.

Sayar, K. & Dinç, M. (2013). Psikolojiye Giriş. Dem Yayınları.

Seriwatana, P. & Charoensukmongkol, P. (2021). Cultural intelligence and relationship quality in the cabin crew team: The perception of members belonging to cultural minority groups. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 20(2), 147-173.

Setti, I., Sommovigo, V., & Argentero, P. (2022) Enhancing expatriates’ assignments success: the relationships between cultural intelligence, cross-cultural adaptation and performance. Current Psychology, 41, 4291-4311.

Shaik, F. F. & Makhecha, U. P. (2019). Drivers of Employee Engagement in Global Virtual Teams. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23, 1-45.

Sharma, N. & Hussain, D. (2017). Current Status and Future Directions for Cultural Intelligence. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 46(1), 96-110.

Sharma, R. R. (2019). Cultural Intelligence and Institutional Success: The Mediating Role of Relationship Quality. Journal of International Management, 25(3), 100665.

Shu, F., McAbee, S. T. & Ayman, R. (2017). The HEXACO personality traits, cultural intelligence, and international student adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 21-25.

Siegler, R. S. (1992). The other Alfred Binet. Developmental Psychology, 28(2), 179-190.

Silvera, D., Martinussen, M., & Dahl, T. I. (2001). The Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale, a Self-report Measure of Social Intelligence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, 313-319.

Sözbilir, F. & Yeşil, S. (2016). The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross-cultural job satisfaction (CCJS) and international related performance (IRP). Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 2277-2294.

Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (1997). The Concept of Intelligence and Its Role in Lifelong Learning and Success. American Psychologist, 52(10), 1030-1037.

Sternberg, R. J. (1999). A Triarchic Approach to the Understanding and Assessment of Intelligence in Multicultural Populations. Journal of School Psychology, 37(2), 145-159.

Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Patterns of giftedness: A triarchic analysis. Roeper Review, 22(4), 231-235.

Stoermer, S., Davies, S., & Froese, F. (2020). The influence of expatriate cultural intelligence on organizational embeddedness and knowledge sharing: The moderating effects of host country context. Journal of International Business Studies, 52, 432-453.

Takdir, S., Syah, T. Y. R., & Anindita, R. (2020). Cultural Intelligence Effect on Job Satisfaction over Employee Performance. Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic, 4(1), 28-33.

Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2006). Motivational Cultural Intelligence, Realistic Job Preview, Realistic Living Conditions Preview, and Cross-Cultural Adjustment. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 154-173.

Thomas, D. C. & Inkson, K. (2004). Cultural intelligence: People Skills for Global Business. Berrett-Koehler.

Thomas, D. C. (2006). Domain and Development of Cultural Intelligence: The Importance of Mindfulness. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 78-99.

Thurstone, L. L. (1946). Theories of Intelligence. The Scientific Monthly, 62(2), 101-112.

Thurstone, L. L. (1973). The Nature of Intelligence. Routledge.

Triandis, H. C. (2006). Cultural intelligence in organizations. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 20-26.

Tuan, L. T. (2015). Entrepreneurial Orientation and Competitive Intelligence: Cultural Intelligence as a Moderator. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 17(2), 212-228.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Livermore, D. (2010). Cultural Intelligence: A Pathway for Leading in a Rapidly Globalizing World. İçinde K. M. Hannum, B. McFeeters & L. Booysen (Eds.). Leading Across Differences (131-138). Pfeiffer.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub-Dimensions of the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence: Expanding the Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Intelligence. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(4), 295-313.

Vedadi, A., Kheiri, B., & Abbasalizadeh, M. (2010). The relationship between cultural intelligence and achievement: a case study in an Iranian company. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 3(3), 25-38.

Velarde, J. M., Ghani, M. F., Adams, D., & Cheah, J.-H. (2022). Towards a healthy school climate: The mediating effect of transformational leadership on cultural intelligence and organisational health. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 50(1), 163-184.

Wang, M. (2016). Effects of expatriates’ cultural intelligence on cross-cultural adjustment and job performance. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 55, 231-243.

Williams, R. H., Zimmerman, D. W., Zumbo, B. D., & Ross, D. (2003). Charles Spearman: British Behavioral Scientist. Human Nature Review, 3, 114-118.

Wood, E. D. & St. Peters, H. Y. Z. (2014). Short-term cross-cultural study tours: impact on cultural intelligence. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(4), 558-570.

Zhang, Y., Huang, L., Duan, Y., & Li, Y. (2022). Are culturally intelligent professionals more committed to organizations? Examining Chinese expatriation in Belt & Road Countries. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 39, 967-997.

Zhang, Y. & Oczkowski, E. (2016). Exploring the potential effects of expatriate adjustment direction. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1), 158-183.

İndir

Yayınlanmış

31.12.2023

Nasıl Atıf Yapılır

TOPALOĞLU, M., & ÖZYER, K. (2023). ÇOK KÜLTÜRLÜ İŞ ORTAMINDA KÜLTÜREL ZEKANIN ROLÜ. Journal of Organizational Behavior Studies, 3(2), 155–181. Geliş tarihi gönderen https://www.obstudies.org/index.php/obs/article/view/29